The Troad, located in the south western corner of Asia Minor, was home to several ethnic groups in antiquity. The new eastern overlords ruled not only the Greek poleis on the coast but also people living inland. The Persians introduced a new administrative system to Asia Minor, including the Troad, where it was best documented. It seems that the Troad was one of the regions where the new administrative system worked really well. In this article, we study the demography and the new system in the Persian Troad.