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Unions throughout the world are faced with new threatening and challenging environmental circumstances such as structural changes in the economy and labour markets, employer opposition either through direct suppression of unions or substitution of the traditionally performed functions of unions and government policies. Research undertaken in various countries has showed that each of these factors accounts for causes of the decline. Unions have considered and applied a variety of structural reforms in their attempts to adjust to the rapidly changing environment. However, these efforts have not solved the general crisis of the union movement.