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Globalization is a process affecting all of the countries and compelling them to change. Pax Americana which is a recent example for the globalization whose former examples include Pax Romana, Pax Ottomana and Pax Britannica, seems to have an overwhelming and irreversible characteristic –at least for now. There are different arguments and opinions about its effects, particularly on less developed or developing countries. Of course, globalization is important because with this process, humankind has experienced quick and big developments. In areas like medicine, physics, chemistry, economy and telecommunication, for example, great developments have been achieved. But unfortunately we can not talk about the similar developments in social life. Development economics which had been suggested for the development of less developed countries just after the Second World War was disputed seriously, and after a long practice period culminating in failure, alternatives are required. We can say that neither neo-liberal policies as alternative to development economics could create an optimistic environment. It is claimed that, on the contrary, hunger, poverty, unemployment and social insecurity have resulted from the policies suggested by neo-liberalism. As a result of the globalization, development in a particular area expands to the extensive areas in a short term, and affects all fields of social structure. Within the global system, it can be claimed that open trade and free market economy which has been implemented
for last four decades provided more opportunities, growth and welfare for many people in the world; but much more people live in poverty, hunger and misery. The world economic system, which has failed in giving fair opportunities to increase living standards, is not reliable anymore. It is estimated that only 20-25%of the world population directly benefit from globalization, while the rest of the world either marginally benefit or do not benefit at all. Only 1,8 billion of the world population (6 billion) can meet the cost of the goods and services available to the world markets; and only half of this section can operate within the banking system. The main issue
is how to provide job and better living standard for around 3 billion people earning less than 2 USD per day and for 2-3 billion prospective additions to the world population next 30-50 years. Achievement of this goal requires a brand new global development strategy, as well as taking pain over environmental and social assets.
Another reason for neglect of the social development policies by the development economics has been its focus on the individualism versus collectivism, and market versus government, but not taking socio-cultural complexities of the world which it tried to model.