YENİ BİR TOPLUM KURAM DİNAMİĞİ: PRATİK-RASYONELLİK

Rasyonellik genel bir tabirle günümüzde toplumsal yapının ve alt sistemlerin üzerine kurulu olduğu dinamiklerin oluşturduğu temel varsayımlardan biridir. Çıkarılan yasalar, benimsenen politikalar, ekonomik ve mali yöntemler gibi unsurlara ilişkin tüm kuramsal ve pratik işleyiş rasyonel ilkelere dayalıdır. Mikro açıdan bakıldığında ise rasyonellik bireylerin eylemde bulunurken çıkarlarını maksimize edip hedeflerine en kolay ve en az maliyetle ulaşması demektir. Max Weber’in geliştirdiği rasyonellik teorisi çok boyutlu bir yapıya sahiptir. O, Batı toplumlarına atfettiği rasyonelleşme teorisini iki temel rasyonellik modeli üzerine inşa eder. Bunlar modern kapitalizmin ortaya çıkışına zemin hazırlayan pratik-rasyonellik ile olgunlaşması ve kurumsallaşmasını sağlayan amaçsal-rasyonelliktir. Amaç-rasyonelliğin günümüzde bütün sistemleri domine etmesi; değer alanlarının ve birey, kurum ve toplumların pratik-rasyonellik rehberliğinde yeniden dizaynını gerektirir. Bu rasyonellik türü günümüz insanının maddi çıkarlarını koruyup manevi dünyasını da ideal olana yükselterek rasyonel toplum özleminin gerçekleştirilmesini sağlayabilir. Bu bakımdan çalışmada rasyonellik kavramı, toplumsal eylemin tasnifi ve rasyonellik çeşitleri kısaca izah edilip Weber’le birlikte Alman düşünce hayatının en önemli isimlerinden Kant’ın referanslarına başvurularak pratik-rasyonellik olgusu ortaya çıkarılmaya çalışılacaktır.

A NEW SOCIETY THEORY DYNAMICS: PRACTICAL-RATIONALISM

In general terms, rationality is one of the basic assumptions of the dynamics upon which social structure and subsystems are built. All the theoretical and practical procedures related to the enacted laws, policies adopted, economic and financial methods are based on rational principles. From a micro perspective, rationality means that individuals can maximize their interests while acting and achieve their goals with the easiest and least cost.Max Weber's theory of rationality has a multidimensional structure. He bases his theory of rationalization on Western societies on two basic models of rationality. These are practical-rationality that prepares the ground for the emergence of modern capitalism and purposeful-rationalism that enables it to mature and institutionalize. Purposeful-rationality to dominates all systems today; it requires redesign of value fields and individuals, institutions and societies under the guidance of practical-rationality. This type of rationality can ensure the longing of rational society by protecting the material interests of today's people and raising their spiritual world to the ideal. From this perspective, the concept of rationality, the classification of social action and the types of rationality will be explained briefly, then referring to Weber’s and Kant’s references to reveal the phenomenon of practical-rationality in this study.

Kaynakça

Aristotle. (1906), The Nicomachean Ethics of Aristotle, Tenth Edition, Tr. F. H. Peters, London: K. Paul, T. T.

Barker, M. (1980), “Kant as a Problem for Weber”, The British Journal of Sociology, 31(2), 224-245.

Dowie, M. (1977), “Pinto Madness”, Mother Jones, September-October, 2, 18-32.

Duran, B. (2017), Din ve Kapitalizm, Letonya: Lambert Academic Publishing.

Chowers, E. (1995), “Max Weber: The Fate of Homo-Hermeneut in a Disenchanted World”, Journal for European Studies, 25(2), 123–40.

Habermas, J. (1989), Toward a Rational Society: Technology and Science as “Ideology”, Tr. J. Shapiro, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Habermas, J. (1984), The Theory of Communicative Action Volume 1: Reason and the Rationalization of Society, Boston: Beacon Press.

Harrington, A. (2000), “Value-Spheres or 'Validity-Spheres'?: Weber, Habermas and Modernity”, Max Weber Studies, 1(1), 84-100.

Harsanyi, J. C. (1977), “Morality and the Theory of Rational Behavior”, Social Research: Rationality, Choice, and Morality, 44(4), 623-656.

Hunt, L. (2002), “Principle and Prejudice: Burke, Kant and Habermas on the Conditions of Practical Reason”, History of Political Thought, 23(1), 117-140.

Jenkins, R. (2000), “Disenchantment, Enchantment and Re-Enchantment: Max Weber at the Millennium”, Max Weber Studies, 1(1), 11-32.

Kalberg, S. (1980), “Max Weber's Types of Rationality: Cornerstones for the Analysis of Rationalization Processes in History”, The American Journal of Sociology, 85(5), 1145-1179.

Kant, I. (2000), Critique of Pure Reason, Tr. P. Guyer, A. W. Wood, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kant, I. (1991), The Methaphysics of Morale, Tr. M. Gregor, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kant, I. (1886), The Metaphysic of Ethics, Third Edition, Tr. J. W. Semple, Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark.

Laiz, A. M., Schlichte, K. (2016), “Rationality and International Domination: Revisiting Max Weber”, International Political Sociology, 10(2), 168–184.

MacInthyre, A. (1988), Whose Justice? Which Rationality?, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press.

McLear, C. (2015), “Two Kinds of Unity in the Critique of Pure Reason”, Journal of the History of Philosophy, 53(1), 79-110.

Özer, B. (2010), “Commonalities and Differences Between Max Weber and Michael Foucault on the Theme of Rationalization of the Body’’, Yönetim ve Ekonomi, 17(2), 13-24.

Parsons, T. (1937), The Structure of Social Action: A Study of Social Theory with Special Reference to a Group of Recent European Writers, United States: McGraw Hill Book C.

Philips, M. (1987), “Reason, Dignity and the Formal Conception of Practical Reason”, American Philosophical Quarterly, 24 (2), 191 – 198.

Rauscher, F. (1998), “Kant's Two Priorities of Practical Reason”, British Journal for the History of Philosophy, 6(3), 397-419.

Rawls, J. (1993), Political Liberalism, New York: Columbia University Press.

Reckling, F. (2001), “Interpreted Modernity Weber and Taylor on Values and Modernity”, European Journal of Social Theory, 4(2), 153–176.

Regan, D. H. (2002), "The Value of Rational Nature", Ethics, 112(2), 267-291.

Ritzer, G. (1975), “Professionalization, Bureaucratization and Rationalization: The Views of Max Weber”, Social Forces, 4(53), 627–634.

Roth, G. (1976), “History and Sociology in the Work of Max Weber”, The British Journal of Sociology, 3(27), 306-318.

Rutgers, M. R., Schreurs, P. (2006), “The Morality of Value and Purpose Rationality: The Kantian Roots of Weber's Foundational Distinction”, Administration & Society, 38(4), 403-421.

Tenbruck, F. H. (1980), “The Problem of Thematic Unity in the Works of Max Weber”, The British Journal of Sociology, 3(31), 316-351.

Weber, M. (2013), The Agrarian Sociology of Ancient Civilizations, Tr. R. I. Frank, London & New York: Verso.

Weber, M. (1978), Economy and Society, Ed. G. Roth And C. Wittich, California: University of California Press.

Weber, M. (1968), The Religion of China, Ed. G. Roth And C. Wittich, Tr. H. H. Gerth, Ny: The Free Press.

Weber, M. (1965), The Sociology of Religion. Tr. E. Fischoff, Boston: Beacon Press.

Weber, M. (1947), The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, Tr. A. M. Henderson and T. Parsons, London: William Hodge and Company Press.

Weber, M. (1946a), Politics as a Vocation: From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, Ed. Gerth, H. H. and Mills, C. W., Ny: Oxford University Press.

Weber, M. (1946b), The Social Psychology of the World Religions: From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, Ed. Gerth, H. H. and Mills, C. W., Ny: Oxford University Press.

Weber, M. (1950a), The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Third Impression. Tr. Talcott Parsons, New York: Charles Scripner’s Son.

Weber, M. (1950b), General Economic History, Tr. F. H. Knight, Illinois: The Free Press.

Wilson, H. T. (2002), “Rationality and Capitalism in Max Weber’s Analysis of Western Modernity”, Journal of Classical Sociology, 2(1), ss. 93–106.

Yee, A. S. (1997), “Thick Rationality and the Missing ‘Brute Fact’: Limits of Rationalist Interpretation of Norms and Ideas”, Journal of Politics, 59(4), 1001–1059.