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This paper examines the benefits and the challenges of carrying out international and comparative research in systems of higher education. The paper does not engage in a comparative or international study of higher education. Rather, the paper addresses the reasons for doing such research, while also identifying the challenges and obstacles. The paper first discusses the reasons for doing international and comparative research, with particular emphasis on the importance of studying colleges and universities in the current context of globalization. The discussion then moves to the challenges of studying and comparing higher education systems in different countries. In analyzing the benefits and potential problems of doing international and comparative research, the discussion seeks to address foundational questions facing the researcher. The paper concludes that despite the daunting challenges, such research projects are essential for understanding the effects of current globalization trends on higher education.