Multiple response optimization to determine the suitable solvent for the extract production from defatted grape seed powder: A simplex lattice mixture design approach
In this study, effects of different solvents (ethanol, methanol and water) on bioactive performance of defatted grape seed powder (GSP) were investigated using simplex lattice mixture design approach. Also, multiple response optimization process was applied to determine the best solvent type for the high bioactive GSP extract production. For this purpose, the bioactive compound concentrations and their antioxidant and antiradical properties were characterized and the effect of solvent type on the processing variables was modelled. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of GSP ranged between 0.31-7.29 mg GAE/g and 44.3-537.4 mg CE/kg sample. In addition to that, DPPH and ABTS.+ radical scavenging activity of the samples were in the range of 2.11-80.5% and 0.31-4.08 μg Trolox/ g sample. The effect of solvent type showed a significant effect on all studied bioactive parameters and the best solvent mixture was determined as ethanol (33.84%), methanol (20.17%) and water (45.99%) by the considering the all studied parameters.
Grape seed powder, Solvent, Optimization, Bioactivity
Barba, F. J., Zhu, Z., Koubaa, M., Sant’ana, A. S. (2016). Green alternative methods for the extraction of antioxidant bioactive compounds from winery wastes and byproducts. Trends Food Science and Technology, 49, 96– 109.[CrossRef]Baydar, N. G., Özkan, G., Yaşar, S. (2007). Evaluation of the antiradical and antioxidant potential of grape extracts. Food Control, 18(9), 1131-1136. [CrossRef]Bonilla, F., Mayen, M., Merida, J., Medina, M. (1999). Extraction of phenolic compounds from red grape marc for use as food lipid antioxidants. Food Chemistry, 66, 209–215. [CrossRef]Bosso, A., Guaita, M., Petrozziello, M. (2016). Influence of solvents on the composition of condensed tannins in grape pomace seed extracts. Food Chemistry, 207, 162-169. [CrossRef]Demirtaş, İ., Pelvan, E., Özdemir, İ. S., Alasalvar, C., Ertaş, E. (2013) Lipid characteristics and phenolics of native grape seed oils grown in Turkey. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 115, 641–647. [CrossRef]FAO Production Year Book (1997).FAO statistics No. 51. Rome:Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsGuendez, R., Kallithraka, S., Makris, D. P. Kefalas, P. (2005). Determination of low molecular weight polyphenolic constituents in grape (Vitis vinifera sp.) seed extracts: Correlation with antiradical activity. Food Chemistry, 89(1), 1-9. [CrossRef]Gülçin,Ì., Şat,İ.G., Beydemir,Ş., Elmastaş,M., Küfrevioglu,Ö.İ. (2004). Comparison of antioxidant activity of clove (Eugenia caryophylata Thunb) buds and lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.). Food Chemistry, 8(3), 393-400. [CrossRef]Köprü, S., Uslu, R., Karaman, K., Yilmaz, M. M., Kaplan, M. (2019). Optimization of processing parameters for the preparation of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) hydroalcoholic extract: A response surface methodology approach to characterize the biofunctional performance. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 100236. (In press) [CrossRef]Jayaprakasha, G. K., Singh, R. P. Sakariah, K. K. (2001). Antioxidant activity of grape seed (Vitis vinifera) extracts on peroxidation models in vitro. Food Chemistry, 73(3), 285-290. [CrossRef]Jayaprakasha, G. K., Selvi, T., Sakariah, K. K. (2003). Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of grape seed extracts. Food Research International 36, 117–122. [CrossRef]Lafka, T. I., Sinanoglou, V., Lazos, E. S. (2007). On the extraction and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from winery wastes. Food Chemistry, 104, 1206–1214. [CrossRef]Mathew, S. and Abraham, T.E., 2006. Studies on the antioxidant activities of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark extracts, through various in vitro models, Food Chemistry, 94, 520-528. [CrossRef]Mildner-Szkudlarz, S., Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R., Goslinski, M. (2010). Phenolic compounds from winemaking waste and its antioxidant activity towards oxidation of rapeseed oil. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45, 2272–2280.[CrossRef]Oliveira, D. A., Salvador, A. A., Smânia, A., Smânia, E. F., Maraschin, M., Ferreira, S. R., (2013) Antimicrobial activity and composition profile of grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace extracts obtained by supercritical fluids. Journal of Biotechnology, 164(3), 423–432. [CrossRef]Pinelo, M., Arnous, A., Meyer, A. S. (2006). Upgrading of grape skins: Significance of plant cell-wall structural components and extraction techniques for phenol release. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 17, 579–590. [CrossRef]Prieto, P., Pineda, M., Aguilar, M. (1999). Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Analytical Biochemistry, 269(2), 337-341. [CrossRef]Rival, S.G., Boeriu, C.G., Wichers, H.J. (2001). Caseins and casein hydrolysates antioxidative properties and relevance to lipoxygenase inhibition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 295-302.[CrossRef]Saito, Makoto., Hosoyama, Hiroshi., Ariga, Toshiaki., Kataoka,Shiehiro., Yamaji, Nobuyuki. (1998). Antiulcer activity of grape seed extract and procyanidins. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 46, 1460-1464. [CrossRef]Savitri, E. S., Holil, K., Resmisari, R. S., Syarifah, U., Munawaroh, S. (2019). Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of extract plants Punica granatum, Vitis vinifera L, Ficus carica L. and Olea europea. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2120, No. 1, p. 030034). AIP Publishing.Singleton, V. L., Rossi, J. A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16(3), 144-158. [CrossRef]Sun, J., Chu, Y., Wu, X., Liu, R.H. (2002). Antioxidant and Antiproliferative activities of common fruits. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 50, 7449–7454. [CrossRef]Sofi, F. R., Raju, C. V., Lakshmisha, I. P., Singh, R. R. (2016). Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of grape and papaya seed extracts and their application on the preservation of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during ice storage. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(1), 104– 117 [CrossRef]Soto, M. L., Falqué, E., Domínguez, H. (2015). Relevance of natural phenolics from grape and derivative products in the formulation of cosmetics. Cosmetics 2(3), 259–276 [CrossRef]Teixeira, A., Baenas, N., Dominguez-Perles, R., Barros, A., Rosa, E., Moreno, D. A., Garcia-Viguera, C. (2014). Natural bioactive compounds from winery byproducts as health promoters. International Journal of Molecular Science, 15, 15638–15678. [CrossRef]Wettasinghe, M., Bolling, B., Pihak, L., Xiao, H., Parkin, K. (2002). Phase II enzyme-inducing and antioxidant activities of beetrot (Beta vulgaris L.) extracts from phenotypes of different pigmentation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 6704-6709. [CrossRef]Zhishen J., Mengcheng, T., Jianming, W. (1999). The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chemistry, 64(4), 555-559. [CrossRef]