Öz Abstract: Since the overthrow of the Communist regime in 1989,Poland has been striving to transform her domestic structure especially in thelight of the guiding norms of the EU. The economic dimension of thistransformation process implies the construction of a liberal market economy inall senses. In several years after the regime change, almost all the necessaryinstitutional-legal adjustments were completed and, from this proceduralperspective, Poland was defined as a market economy. However, beyond thislegal-institutional frame, the real construction of a market economy as of anyother structure, necessitates the internalisation of normative values-behaviouralrules of this economy (market economy culture) by individuals. This study aimsto display to what extent such a normative transformation had been achieved inthe post- 1989 period of Poland.Keywords: Market Culture, Poland, Transformation, Orientation,Entrepreneurship


Adam, J. (1999), Social Costs of Transformation to a Market Economy in Post- Socialist Countries, London, Macmillan Press.

Agh, A. (2001) “Democratic Consolidation in Hungary”, G. Pridham and A. Agh (eds.), Prospects for Democratic Consolidation in East-Central Europe, Manchester, Manchester University Press, pp. 157-180.

Balcerowicz, L. (1995), Socialism, Capitalism, Transformation, Budapest, Central European University Press.

Beblo, M. et al. (2002), Poverty Dynamics in Poland-Selected Quantitative Analysis, Warsaw, Case.

Bideleux, R and Jeffries, I. (1998), A History of Eastern Europe, London, Routledge.

COM (European Commission), (2002), Candidate Countries Eurobarometer 2001, /cceb20011_en.pdf.

Brabant, J. M. (1992), “Divestment of State Capital”, K. Poznanski (ed.), Constructing Capitalism: The Reemergence of Civil Society and Liberal Economy in the Post-Communist World, Oxford, Westview Press, pp. 117-138.

Bruszt, L. and Stark, D. (2003), “Who Counts? Supranational Norms and Societal Needs”, East European Politics and Societies, 17 (1), 74- 82.

Bryant, C. (1994) “Economic Utopianism and Sociological Realism: Strategies for Transformation in East-Central Europe”, C. Bryant and E. Mokrzycki (eds.), The New Great Transformation?, London, Routledge, pp. 58-78.

Clague, C. (1992), “The Journey to a Market Economy”, C. Clague and G. C. Rausser (eds.), The Emergence of Market Economies in Eastern Europe, Oxford, Blackwell, pp. 1-25.

Cox, T. (1998), “The Politics of Social Change”, S. White, J. Batt and P. G. Lewis (eds.), Developments in Central and East European Politics, London, Macmillan, pp. 216-233.

Csaba, L. (1995), The Capitalist Revolution in Eastern Europe, Hants, Edward Elgar Publishing.

Cywinska, B. (2000), Small and Medium-Size Enterprises in Poland in 1998, Warsaw, Case.

Dietl, J. (1991), “Polish Dilemmas of the 1990s”, A. Kuklinski (ed.), Poland- The Quest for New Identity and Competitive Advantage, Warsaw, Polish Association for the Club of Rome, pp. 147-157.

Draus, F. (2000), “Enlargement of Another Kind”, Notre Europe Association Research and Policy paper no. 11, http://www.notre-

Dziubka, K. (1997), “Emergent Democratic Citizenship: A Study of Changing Value Patterns in Polish Society”, NATO Research Fellowships Programme,

EBRD. (1999), Transition Report 1999, London, EBRD Publications Desk.

EBRD. (2002), Transition Report 2002, London, EBRD Publications Desk.

Fierke, K. and Wiener, A. (1999), “Constructing Institutional Interests: EU and NATO Enlargement”, European University Institute Working Paper, RSC 99/14.

Fowkes, B. (1999), The Post-Communist Era- Change and Continuity in Eastern Europe, London, Macmillan.

Gorzelak, G. (1994), “Regional Patterns of Polish Transformation, 1990-2005”, K. Wodz (ed.), Transformation of Old Industrial Regions As a Sociological Problem, Katowice, University of Silesia Press, pp. 70-107.

Hall, J. A. (1995), “After the Vacuum: Post-Communism in the Light of Tocqueville”, B. Crawford (ed.), Markets, States, and Democracy: The Political Economy of Post-Communist Transformation, Oxford, Westview Press, pp. 82-103.

Jackson, J. E. and Marcinkowski, A. (1999), “Entrepreneurial Attitudes of Poles”, E. Hauser and J. Wasilewski (eds.), Lessons in Democracy, Krakow, Jagiellonian University Press, pp. 171-200.

Jarosz, M. (2000), “Features and Problems of the Polish Privatisation”, M. Jarosz (ed.), Ten Years of Direct Privatisation, Warsaw, Polish Academy of Sciences, pp. 7-26.

Johnson, S. and Loveman, G. (1995), Starting Over in Eastern Europe: Entrepreneurship and Economic Renewal, Massachusetts, Harvard Business School Press.

Koronacki, J. (1994), “Reflections on Poland and America: A View from Warsaw”, Sarmatian Review, 14 (2), 1-3.

Kurczewska, J. And Bojar, H. (1995), “A New Society? Reflections on Democracy and Pluralism in Poland”, Democracy, Civil Society and Pluralism, Warsaw, Ifis Publishers, pp. 143-203.

Linz, J. J. and Stepan, A. (1996), Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation, Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press.

Malfliet, K. (1997), “European Enlargement and European Identity: A Legal Perspective”, Z. Mach and D. Niedzwiedzki (eds.), European Enlargement and Identity, Krakow, Universitas, pp. 91-103.

Marody, M. (1991), “On Polish Attitudes”, Telos, vol. 89.

Marody, M. (1992), “From Social Idea to Real World: Clash Between New Possibilities and Old Habits”, K. Z. Poznanski (ed.), Constructing Capitalism, Oxford, Westview Press, pp. 159-177.

McDermott, G. A. (2001), “Institutional Change and Firm Creation in east- Central upload/publikacja_plik/gamd.pdf An Embedded Politics Approach”,

Meyer, G. (1996), “Towards a Political Sociology of Postcommunism: the Political Cultures of East Central Europe on the Way to Democracy”, A. W. Jablonski and G. Meyer (eds.), The Political Culture of Poland in Transition, Wroclaw, University of Wroclaw Press, pp. 17-39.

Nellis, J. (2002), The World Bank, Privatisation and Enterprise Reform in Transition Economies, Washington, The World Bank.

OECD. (1996), Small Business in Transition Economies.

OECD. (2002), Economic Surveys-Poland.

Pedersen, O. K. (1993), “Selling The state or Building A Society-Private Property reforms in West and East”, J. Hausner and G. Mosur (eds.), Transformation Processes in Eastern Europe: Western Perspectives and The Polish Experience, Krakow, Polish Academy of Sciences, pp. 52-68.

Powers, D. (2001), “The Nitty-Gritty of Making Democracies Work: Self- Concept, Agency and the Transition from State Socialism in Poland”, Paper prepared for the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association.

Poznanski, K. (2001), “Building Capitalism with Communist Tools: Eastern Europe’s Defective Transition”, East European Politics and Societies, 15 (2), 320-355.

Pridham, G. (2001), “Comparative reflections On Democratisation In East- Central Europe: A Model of Post-Communist Transformation”, G. Pridham and A. Agh (eds.), Prospects For Democratic Consolidation In East-Central Europe, Manchester, Manchester University Press, pp. 1-25.

Przeworski, A. (1991), Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Rose, R. (1992), “Toward A Civil Democracy”, Journal of Democracy, 3 (2), 13-26.

Rose, R. (2002), “Advancing into Europe?”, Nations in Transit 2002, 002.pdf

Schoenman, R. (2001), “Bureaucrats and Biznes-men: Bureaucratic Overlap, New Economic Interests and the Rules of Economic Dominance in Post-Socialist Poland”, Paper in American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, San Francisco.

Weclawowicz, G. (1996), Contemporary Poland, London, UCL Press.

Taras, R. (1993), “Voters, Parties and Leaders”, R. F. Staar (ed.), Transition to Democracy in Poland, New York, St. Martin’s Press.

Taras, R. (1995), Consolidating Democracy in Poland, Oxford, Westview Press. USAID. (1995), gov/pl/1995.htm. Mission to