Demokrasi Karbondioksit Emisyonu İçin Önemli mi? Türkiye İçin Bir Uygulama

Geçmişten günümüze nüfus artışı, kentleşme ve ekonomik kalkınma hedeflerinin bir sonucu olan çevresel bozulma önemli bir boyuta ulaşmıştır. Özellikle gelişmiş ve demokratik ülkelerde araştırmacılar ve politikacılar için çevresel bozulmanın önlenmesi ve azaltılması konusu en çok çalışılan konulardan birisi olmuştur. Ekonomik kalkınma sürecinde ilk öncelik ekonomik büyüme iken, bu süreci tamamlamış ülkelerde demokrasi çerçevesinde sosyal ve çevresel konulardaki kamuoyu farkındalığı artmaktadır. Gelişmiş demokrasilerde vatandaşlar, çevre sorunları hakkında karar vermede aktif role sahiptirler. Aynı zamanda demokratik devletler vatandaşın çevresel görüş ve ihtiyaçlarına daha duyarlıdırlar. Bu teorik bilgilere göre demokrasinin çevre üzerinde bir etkisi olduğu ifade edilebilir. Bu çalışmada Türkiye’nin 1972-2011 yılları arasındaki verileri kullanılarak çevresel politikalar için demokrasinin önemi araştırılmıştır. Bu bağlamda zaman serisi analizi ile Türkiye’de demokrasinin karbondioksit emisyonu üzerinde azaltıcı etkiye sahip olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır.
Anahtar Kelimeler:

Çevre, Demokrasi, Ekonomik Büyüme

Does Democracy Level Matter for the Carbon Dioxide Emissions? An Empricial Study for Turkey

From past to present, environmental degradation that comes as a result of the pursuit of population increase, urbanization and economic development objectives has reached a severe stage. Preventing and reducing this degradation has became one of the most studied topics for researchers and policy makers in especially economically developed and democratic countries. While the first priority in the process of economic development is economic growth, nowadays in countries that have completed this process public awareness about social and environmental issues has increasing within the framework of democracy. In mature democracies citizens have an active role as a participant in decisionmaking process about environmental issues. Corresponding to this, democratic governments are more responsive to public’s environmental views and needs. According to this theoretical knowledge, there is evidence of effects of democracy on environment. This paper investigates the importance of democracy for the policies of pollution. In particular, we examine the effects of level of democracy on the carbon dioxide emissions for Turkey over the period 1972-2011. It concluded that democracy has a reducing effect on carbon dioxide emissions.

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