Hayek’in Toplum ve İktisat Anlayışı: Eleştirel Bir Değerlendirme

Bu çalışmada serbest piyasa düzeninin felsefi savunucularından biri olan ekonomist ve siyaset bilimci F. A. Hayek’in daha çok toplum ve iktisat düşüncesi üzerinde durularak Hayekçi anlayışa yönelik eleştirel bir kavrayış geliştirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Hayek, “kurucu rasyonalizm” adını verdiği belirgin bir eğilime sert eleştiriler yönelterek liberal değer ya da kurumların “kendiliğindenliğine” vurgu yapan neo-klasik/pragmatist bir yaklaşım geliştirmiştir. Hayekçi epistemoloji, bireyci rasyonalizmle kolektif rasyonalizm arasında palyatif/pragmatik bir ayrım yaparak bu iki kategorinin bambaşka içerimleri olduğunu varsaymaktadır. Hâlbuki “akılcı/bireyci kendiliğindenlik” ile “akılcı/kolektif kendiliğindenlik” nosyonları arasındaki eş-kökenliği açıkça ihmal eden bu yaklaşım felsefi açıdan tutarsızdır. Hayek’in düşünsel mirasını en iyi tarif eden şey “akılcı pragmatizm”dir. Gerçekten de bireyselden genele yararcı bir mantık sıçraması Hayek’in tüm epistemolojisini baştan sona örüntülemekte ve ilginç bir şekilde “birikimci bir geleneksellik vurgusu” akılcı bir özgürleşme çağrısının büyülü göstergesi olarak resmedilmektedir. Bu niteliğiyle Hayek’in düşüncesi, kaçınılmaz bir şekilde ve öngörülenin tam da aksine, “öngörülebilir olmayanının öngörülebilir bir ontolojisi” olarak temayüz etmektedir.

Hayek’s Understanding of Society And Economy: A Critical Overview

This study is intended to put forward a critical conception of Hayekian understanding by elaborating especially on economist and political scientist F. A. Hayek’s perceptions of society and economy, who is one of the philosophical advocates of free market order. Directing harsh criticisms against an established tendency which he calls as “constructivist rationalism”, Hayek has developed a neo-classical/pragmatist approach stressing on the spontaneity of liberal values or institutions. By offering a palliative/pragmatic distinction between individualist rationalism and collective rationalism, Hayekian epistemology assumes that these two categories have fully different implications. Nevertheless this approach which explicitly ignores the equi-origin of the two notions “rationalist/individualist spontaneity” and “rationalist/collective spontaneity” is philosophically inconsistent. The best term to define the Hayekian thought heritage is “rationalist pragmatism”. So indeed, a logical jumping “from individual up to general” is thoroughly patterned within the entire epistemology of Hayek, and oddly enough, “a stress for the accumulative traditionality” is described as a magical indicator of a call for the rationalist emancipation. By this characteristic, the thought of Hayek, inevitably and just contrary to what would have been foreseen, appears as nothing but “the foreseeable ontology of the unforeseeable”.

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