Kalkınma İşbirliğinde Etkinlik Arayışları ve Yeni Aktörler: Paradigma Dönüşümü

Kalkınma yardımları, II. Dünya Savaşı sonrasında uluslararası ekonomi-politik açısından, sanayileşmiş zengin Batılı devletlerin önemli bir politika aracı olmuş; özellikle Soğuk Savaş döneminde yaşanan kutuplar arası mücadelede liberal blok ile sosyalist blok tarafından dünyanın geri kalan bölgelerinde üstünlük sağlama arayışlarında önemli ölçüde kullanılmıştır. Söz konusu yardımlar öte yandan, yardım yapılan ülkelerde kalkınma süreçlerine yeterli düzeyde katkı yapmadığı gibi bağımlı kılma, tek yönlü-dikey, şartlılık ve katılım ve uyum gibi sorunlar nedeniyle eleştirilmiştir. Bu amaçla düzenlenen yüksek düzeyli forumlarda bu soruna çözümler aranmış ve gelinen nokta itibarıyla, kalkınmanın yalnızca iktisadi bakış ve kamu finansmanı ile sağlanamayacağı; ayrıca özel sektör, sivil toplum ve diğer aktörlerin de sürece dahil edilmesi gibi yönetişim felsefesinin kalkınmada işbirliğini etkinliğinin artırılması bağlamında bir paradigma dönüşümüne katkı sağladığı görülmüştür. Çalışmamızda, kalkınma yardımlarında etkinliğin artırılmasına yönelik düzenlenen söz konusu forumları ve sürece dahil olan yeni aktörlerin konumları ve bu dönüşüme etkisi değerlendirilmektedir.

Search for Effectiveness in Development Cooperation and New Actors: Paradigm Transformation

Development assistance has been an important policy instrument of the industrialized, rich Western countries in respect of international political-economy since the end of II. World War; and largely employed both by the Liberal Block and the Socialist Block particularly in the bi-polar Cold War maneuvering to establish superiority in other regions of the World. The development assistances, on the other hand, has been criticized for the problems of creating dependency, onesidedness, conditionality, and lack of participation and low adaptation as well as not contributing to the development processes adequately in the assistance recipient countries. The solutions for these problems were sought in high-level forums organized for this purpose, and it is understood that development cannot be achieved only through economic perspectives and public funding; As well as the involvement of the private sector, civil society and other actors in the development process in the context of governance philosophy, has contributed to a paradigm shift enhancing the effectiveness in development cooperation. In our study, the forums and the new actors involved in the development cooperation process in order to increase the effectiveness of development assistances and the impacts of this paradigm transformation were evaluated.

Kaynakça

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