Öz In this study, v/c have put forward the structural explanations of four basic iheorciical approaches functionalism, structuralism, Marxism and symbolic interactions. The discussion topics/dilemmas (the individual- society/ action-structure, hannony-conflict, macro-micro, simiiarity-differcnce, social structure-cultural structure, static-dynamic, concrete-abstract) that continue concerning the structural fact in theoretical approaches have been determined and the focal point of this study has been made. The responses given to the discussion topics by two opposite sides, that is, the defenders of positivist paradigm and those of humanistic paradigm, very clearly reflects the disagreement between these two sides. Our study is an effort to make a contribution to the overcoming of the dilemmas we have determined.