Makale özeti ve diğer detaylar.
Bu çalışmanın amacı, yapılandırmacı yaklaşımın 4 basamaklı modeline göre hazırlanan zenginleştirilmiş bir öğretim materyalinin 8. sınıf öğrencilerinin asitler ve bazlarla ilgili anlamalarına ve yanılgılarını gidermelerine etkisini belirlemektir. Yarı deneysel olarak yürütülen çalışma 22 kişilik 8. sınıf öğrencisiyle (11'i deney, 11'i kontrol grubu) yürütülmüştür. Çalışmada veri toplama aracı olarak "Asit-Baz Kavram Testi (ABKT)" kullanılmıştır. Bu test asit ve bazlarla ilgili 20 adet iki aşamalı çoktan seçmeli soru içermektedir. ABKT öğrencilere öğretim süreci öncesinde ön-test, öğretim süreci sonrasında ise son-test olarak uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler Mann-Whitney U testi ile analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda deney grubu ile kontrol grubu öğrencilerinin başarıları arasında deney grubu lehine istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir farklılığın olduğu görülmüştür. Ayrıca deney grubundaki öğrencilerin yanılgılarını kontrol grubu öğrencilerine göre daha yüksek oranda giderdikleri belirlenmiştir.
Problem Statement: Chemistry is a subject that is considered by both teachers and researchers to be difficult for students. One of the most important reasons is that chemistry includes abstract concepts and the other is the ineffectiveness of traditional teaching methods. For this reason, teachers need to consider new and alternative teaching methods, particularly for difficult and abstract concepts. In recent years, the constructivist theory of learning has been widely used in science education and presents the idea of environmental interaction with one's own knowledge in mind. Although three-step, four-step, 5E and 7E models have been put forward to facilitate the application of this theory, the four-step constructivist model has some distinct advantages. In the literature, there are several alternative methods for science and chemistry instruction. Animations, analogies, simulations, worksheets, concept cartoons, laboratory activities, and conceptual change texts are some of them. Although there are numerous studies which separately examine the effectiveness of these methods, studies in which the four-step model is enriched with these methods are limited. In view of this, we attempted to combine worksheets, conceptual change texts and animations with the four-step model in this study. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of enriched teaching material based on the four-step constructivist model on grade 8 students' understanding of acids and bases. Method(s): The study was quasi-experimental with one control and one experimental group, and the sample included 22 grade 8 students (11 students in the experimental group, 11 students in the control group). An "Acid Base Concept Test (ABCT)" that included 20 two-tier multiple-choice questions was used in the study to collect data. The test was implemented as a pre-test before the teaching and as a post-test after the teaching. The data were analyzed with a t-test. In the study, the experimental group was taught with newly developed material, while the control group employed the traditional instruction based on textbooks and teacher explanations. Findings and Discussions: The result of the study showed that while there was no statistically significant difference between the groups on the pre-test, there was a statistically significant difference between the groups in favor of the experimental group on the post-test. Twenty three alternative conceptions were found on the pretest among both groups' students. The post-test results show that students in the experimental group were more successful than the control group ones in eliminating their alternative conceptions. On the post-test, students in the experimental group fully corrected eleven alternative conceptions, while the control group's students fully corrected three ones. These results show that the four-step model enriched with multiple materials was more successful than the traditional textbook and teacher explanations-based instruction in improving students' understanding of acids and bases. Conclusions and Recommendations: Results of the study show that traditional instruction is ineffective on students understanding of basic science and chemistry concepts. For this reason, alternative teaching methods should be developed and implemented in teaching of science concepts. And also, literature suggests that using a single teaching method may sometimes result in new learning difficulties. So, a combination of different methods may be a useful way to increase and enhance students' ability to visualize particle-level processes, and such a way may help students to understand microscopic concepts.