SOSYAL GÜVENLİKTE REFORM EĞİLİMLERİ: GELENEKSEL SİSTEMLERDEN BİREYSEL EMEKLİLİK PROGRAMLARINA DÖNÜŞÜM

Öz Son 20 yıllık periyotta pek çok ülkede genelde sosyal güvenlik, özelde emeklilik sistemlerinin önemli bir krizle karşı karşıya kaldığı görülmektedir. Sosyal güvenlik sistemini olumsuz yönde etkileyen çeşitli değişkenden söz etmek mümkün olsa da, kriz temelde benzer nedenlere dayanmaktadır. Nüfus hızla yaşlanmakta ve bireyler daha uzun yaşamaktadırlar. Bu demografik eğilimler sosyal güvenlik sistemleri finansal sürdürülebilirliği üzerinde ciddi baskılar yaratmaktadırlar. Finansal baskıları etkisini arttıran bir diğer trend işgücünden erken ayrılmalardır. Yaşanan kriz, her ülkede hükümetleri emeklilik sistemi programları reformlarını gerçekleştirmeye zorlamaktadır. Bireysel emeklilik hesapları bu reform girişimlerinden biridir. Bu makalenin amacı, sosyal güvenlik sistemlerine ilişkin reformları çeşitli OECD ülkelerinden örneklerle ortaya koymaktır.
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