Makale özeti ve diğer detaylar.
Bu çalışma 1-3 yaş arasında normal gelişim gösteren çocukların gelişim seviyeleri ile annelerinin özyeterlik inanç düzeylerini belirlemek ve arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemek amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 1-3 yaş arasında normal gelişim gösteren çocuğu olan 60 anne oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada Elibol, Mağden, Alpar (2007) tarafından Türkçe'ye uyarlanan Anne Babalık Becerilerinde Özyeterlik Ölçeği ve 1-3 yaş arasındaki çocuklara Savaşır, Sezgin ve Erol (1994) tarafından geliştirilen Ankara Gelişim Envanteri uygulanmıştır. Araştırma analizlerinde frekans, yüzde değerleri ve korelasyon analizi teknikleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda; annelerin özyeterlik algılarının orta düzeyde olduğu, ancak disiplin, öğretme ve oyun alanlarında kendilerini daha az yeterli hissettikleri; 1-3 yaş arasındaki çocukların en çok ince motor gelişimlerinde yetersizlik olduğu, kaba motor, dil-bilişsel ve sosyal beceri-özbakım alanlarında ise yarıdan fazlasının gelişiminin yetersiz olduğu bulunmuştur. Ayrıca annelerin özyeterlik algıları ile çocukların sosyal beceri-özbakım gelişimleri arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki tespit edilmiştir (p<0.05).
Purpose: The aim of this research is to determine the development level of normally developing children aged between 1 and 3, and their mothers' self-efficacy perception level; and to determine the relationship between these two constructs. Method: With the purpose of determining the psychomotor, cognitive and social-emotional development levels of children aged between 1 and 3 and of identifying mothers' perception of self-efficacy in terms of parenting and determining the relationship between these two variables, this research is conducted using a scanning model. Findings and Discussions: Mothers' self-efficacy points range between 51 and 255. When the data regarding mothers' self-efficacy level is examined, it is found that 46.67% of mothers have high self-efficacy perception and more than half of the mothers (53,33%) have moderate self-efficacy perception. Based on this, it can be said that mothers have moderate level self-efficacy perception regarding their parenting roles. When the points are examined separately for each factor, it is found that mothers show the highest levels of self-efficacy perception in "Emotional Efficacy" and "Responsive reacting, care-attention, value" and they have the lowest levels of selfefficacy perception in "Discipline/Restriction, Play and Teaching". In child development, there are three components of an effective discipline system. Firstly, a positive and supportive mother/father child relationship; secondly, systematic instruction through teaching and supporting the desired behaviors; thirdly, a strategy of reducing and eliminating undesired behaviors (Jellinek, Patel and Froehle, 2002). In other words, in order to use discipline methods effectively, parents need to use positive communication skills with their children. It is stated that during mother-child play, mothers' verbal expressions affect the quality of mother-child interaction significantly (Driscoll and Easterbrooks 2007; Marchand, Hock and Widaman 2002). In addition, it is emphasized that mother-child play in a qualified interaction context promotes children's physical, cognitive and social-emotional development (Glaser, 2000; Panksepp, 1998, 2001; Schore, 1994, 2003; Tucker et al., 1998). Thus, the reason why mothers feel less self-efficacy in the play and disciplinary restriction domains might be mothers' inability to have effective communication with their children. According to the results of this study, most children are found to be poor in fine motor skills; more than half of the children have inadequate gross motor, language-cognitive and social skill-self care skills. It is stated that the perception regarding self-efficacy helps predict parenting behaviors and mothers having high self-efficacy perception use more appropriate parenting practices (Coleman and Karraker, 2000; Luebering 1995; Teti and Gelfand, 1991). They prepare appropriate environmental settings for their children. They are more responsive to their babies' signs and they become active mothers who take responsibility in interacting with their babies (Coleman and Karraker, 2000). In this research, it is also found that there is a moderate positive relationship between mothers' self-efficacy beliefs and children's social skills and self-care development (p>0.05); however, there is not a significant relationship between mothers' self-efficacy beliefs and children's psychomotor and language-cognitive development (p<0.05). Previous studies show that there is an important relationship between mother self-efficacy and children's social-emotional development (Stafforf and Bayer, 1993; van Ijzendoorn et al., 1995, Donovan, Leavitt and Walsh, 1990; Elder et al., 1995; Swick and Hassell, 1990). Conclusions and Recommendations: In this research mothers having a baby aged between 1 and 3 are found to have low self-efficacy perception, especially in the discipline/restriction, play and teaching domains where mothers feel less self-efficient. Furthermore, it is found that more than half of children aged between 1 and 3 are poorly developed in all developmental areas, and there is a positive relationship between mothers' self-efficacy perception and children's social-emotional development. The results of this study show that practitioners of theoretical information have sufficient information in these subjects. For this reason, there is a need to raise the self-efficacy perception of mothers having children aged between 1 and 3. And in order to promote children's development, educational training related to child development, child-care, effective communication, and mother-baby play should be conducted.