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Akademik Bakış - Uluslararası Hakemli Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi

Yıl 2013 , Cilt , Sayı 38

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Makale özeti
Başlık :

1950'lerden bugüne türk makam müziği nasil değişti? sözlü tarih çalişmasi

Yazar kurumları :
Muğla Üniversitesi1, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi2
Görüntülenme :
565
DOI :
Özet Türkçe :

Bu çalışmada, sosyal bilimlerdeki sözlü tarih yöntemi kullanılarak Makamsal Türk Müziğinin değişimi müzikal ölçütlerle tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. 1925-1940 yılları arasında doğmuş on sekiz icracı ile Ekim 2008 - Ağustos 2010 arasında yapılan yüz saate yakın görüşme sonucunda dokuz başlık altında değişimin anlaşılabileceği görülmüştür: Klasik fasıl öğrenimi, meşk tekniğinin uygulanması, çalgı ve seste icra teknikleri, usûl hâkimiyeti, makam hâkimiyeti, taksim veya gazel okuyabilme yetisi, nakil zincirinde örnek alınan ustaların tespit edilmesi, üslup ve refâkat. Selma Ersöz, İnci Çayırlı, Serap Mutlu Akbulut, Nesrin Sipahi, Tülûn Korman, Tülin Yakarçelik, Yüksel Kip, Süheyla Altmışdört, Alaeddin Yavaşça, Nevzad Atlığ, İhsan Özgen, Ahmet Hatipoğlu, Sadun Aksüt, Nihat Doğu, Kemal Demir, Erol Deran, Cüneyt Kosal, Nurettin Çelik, Mutlu Torun ile görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Görüşülen kişiler ağırlıklı olarak saz ve ses sanatçısıdırlar, aralarında besteci ve koro şefi de vardır. 1950'lerden bugüne usûl ve makamların bilinirliğinde büyük bir gerileme olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Fasıl kavramının değiştiği, tek makamda uzun süre müzik yapma alışkanlığının ve ev toplantılarının kaybolduğu görülmüştür. Radyonun müzik naklinde önemli bir meşk aracı olduğu dolayısıyla medyanın büyük bir rol oynadığı anlaşılmıştır. Gazelhanlığın kaybolmaya yüz tuttuğu göze çarpmaktadır. Taksimlerde virtüözitenin arttığı fakat makamsal hâkimiyetin azaldığı görüşü tespit edilmiştir. Görüşülen kişilerin örnek aldığı ve ileri taşımak istedikleri isimler arasında, Münir Nurettin Selçuk ve Tanburî Cemil Bey öne çıkmaktadır.

Anahtar kelimeler :
Özet İngilizce :

We have done 100 hours of interviews with 18 musicians who has born between 1925-1940. From their point of view we have discovered that the musical change on Turkish Maqam Music can be understand by nine key points as “fasil” (repertory), mesk (education by ear), instrument and vocal techniques, maqam, usûl (rhythm), taksim and gazel (improvisation), transmission chain, uslup (style) and refâkat (accompaniment). In this period maqam and rhythm are two essential points who proove the decrease on the transmission of the Turkish Maqam Music. Vocal improvisation has nearly disappeared. On the other hand communication facilities like radio serves for ear training and transmission of old records. It has been understood also that the multiculturality is the essential characteristic of this maqam style and that western tonal music is a part of this music for 250 years. It has been discovered that the meaning of the word "fasil" has been changed in this period. When the interviewed people were child the “fasıl”s were a performance who were generally one and half an hour and performed in one maqam, consisted from several forms and it was also performed for social reasons in homes. Today in social life it’s performed in professional purposes generally in restaurants, it’s no more in one maqam and the most of musical forms are forgotten. However maqam coherence and continuity in performance is still important. “Mesk” mean to learn by observing and doing the same. The musicians were learning by listening and keeping in mind the melodies. It has been understood that this music tradition has to be learned still via a master, at less by ear. The musical notes are more and more used but some notes (like segah) are not written exactly. It has been seen that the radio was a common teacher between this musicians. The instruments were nearly same but the meaning of virtuosity is changing. The old musicians were strong on maqam knowledge but weaker than youngs on technical ability on westerner sense of the term. The vocalists were all been influenced by westerner singing style. A big change has happened on rhythmic tradition. The big rhythms (Usûl like 14/8 or 24/8) are not commonly used anymore and the variety of the little (Usûl like 5/8 or 6/8) rhythms has decreased. Several maqams that interviewed people know are not playing commonly today. They think that while doing music the ability of passing from a maqam to another asks a master level on maqams and it’s also decreasing. After the singers like Munir Nurettin Selçuk and Bekir Sıtkı Sezgin they think that there is no more vocal improvisation and in the instruments the technique has been improved but the composition on maqam language is weaker. We have discovered the reference musicians for the interviewed musicians are Safiye Ayla, Münir Nurettin Selçuk, Tanburi Cemil Bey, Dede Efendi. The style is changing but there is always a line who link the past and the present.. The interviewed people point us that in this music tradition the style can be understand by the continuity of general style who is Ottoman Style of Maqam Music. A personal style is accepted if he serves this continuity and if it is different from the general style in the same time. They think that the classic style today is threatened by commercial style. The accompaniment understanding between soloist and instrumentalist is important. Traditionally the soloist must be listened and followed every moment by the instrumentalist. The musician has to listen the soloist and must be ready to follow him. The interviewed musicians think that today this point is taken less in consideration.

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