BİR ÇEVRİMİÇİ ÖĞRENME ORTAMININ KULLANILMASI: BAŞLICA STRATEJİLER VE OLANAK SAĞLAYICILAR
Teknoloji bütünleşme sürecine odaklanılması
teknolojinin öğretim için kullanılmasına yönelik stratejileri ve ilgili
faktörleri anlamaya yönelik farklı bir bakış açısı ve katkı sağlayabilir. Bu
çalışmanın amacı bir bilgisayar öğretmeninin çevrimiçi öğrenme ortamını nasıl
kullandığını anlamaya çalışmak ve olası stratejiler ile kullanma sürecine katkı
sağlayan olanakları ortaya çıkartmaktır. Nitel araştırma paradigması benimsenen
çalışmada amaçsal örnekleme yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın amacı
doğrultusunda bir bilgisayar öğretmeni örneklem hedefi olarak belirlenmiştir.
Çalışmanın ana bulgusu öğretmenin çevrimiçi öğrenme ortamını öğretim sürecinin
ön-çalışmaları ve öğretim sürecini desteklemek için kullandığını
göstermektedir. Kullanım sürecinde, aktiviteler, gösterimler, tartışma ortamı,
içerik açıklamaları ve değerlendirmeler sıklıkla kullanılmıştır. Çevrimiçi
öğrenme ortamının kullanması öğretmene öğrencileri ile bireysel
ilgilenebilmesini adına zaman kazandırmış, öğrencilerin derslere karşı ilgisini
arttırmış ve öğrencilere farklı bir bilgi kaynağı sunmasına katkı sağlamıştır.
Öğretmene göre öğrencileri kendi öğrenme sorumluluklarının, bilginin başka
kaynaklardan da edinilebileceklerinin farkına varmışlardır. Öğrenciler daha
aktif bir şekilde ders süreçlerine katılım sağlamaya başlamışlardır.
UTILIZING AN ONLINE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: MAIN STRATEGIES AND ENABLERS
Focusing on the technology
integration process can offer another perspective and a contribution towards
understanding the related factors and strategies of utilization of technology
for instruction. The purpose of this study was to understand how a computer
science teacher utilized an online learning environment and to reveal possible
strategies and enablers of utilization process. Purposive sampling method was
used as qualitative research paradigm. In line with the purpose of the study, a
computer teacher was selected as the sample target of the study. Results showed
that the teacher utilized the online learning environment for preparing and
supporting classroom instruction. During the utilization process activities,
demonstrations, discussions, content explanations and evaluations were
frequently used. Use of the online learning environment enabled the teacher
spare much time for dealing with students individually, provide alternative
information source and increase students’ interest towards lessons. The teacher
perceived that his students became aware of responsibility for their own learning,
became aware that information can be accessed from other sources and were much
active and participated more to the lessons.
Akdemir, O., & Koszalka, T. A. (2008). Investigating the relationships among instructional strategies and learning styles in online environments. Computers & Education, 50, 1451-1461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2007.01.004
Amiel, T., & Reeves, T. C. (2008). Design-based research and educational technology: Rethinking technology and the research agenda. Educational Technology & Society, 11(4), 29-40.
Baek, Y., Jung, J., & Kim, B. (2008). What makes teachers use technology in the classroom? Exploring the factors affecting facilitation of technology with a Korean sample. Computers & Education, 50, 224-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2006.05.002
Barnett, H. (2000). Assessing the effects of technology in a standards-driven world. Learning & Leading with Technology, 27(7), 28-31.
Bebell, D. J. (2003). Examining and understanding teachers’ use of technology (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Boston College, Boston.
Becker, H. J. (2001). How are teachers using computers in instruction? Paper presented at the annual conference for the American Educational Research Association. Seattle, WA.
Becker, H. J., Ravitz, J. L., & Wong, Y. (1999). Teacher and teacher-directed student use of computers and software. Irvine, CA: Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations, University of California, Irvine, and the University of Minnesota.
Bodur, E., Özkan, F., Altun, E., & Şimşek, E. (2009). The role of teacher in web enhanced learning activities in primary school information technologies lesson: A case study. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences I, 2009, 1043–1051.
Bottino, R. M., & Robotti, E. (2007). Transforming classroom teaching & learning through technology: Analysis of a case study. Educational Technology & Society, 10(4), 174-186.
Buabeng-Andoh, C. (2012). Factors influencing teachers’ adoption and integration of information and communication technology into teaching: A review of the literature. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 8(1), 136–155.
Byrom, E. (1998). Review of the professional literature on the integration of technology into educational programs. Retrieved from http://edhd.bgsu.edu/~sbanist/6320/pdfs/litreviewbyrom.pdf
Cubukcuoglu, B. (2013). Factors enabling the use of technology in subject teaching. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 9(3), 50-60.
Donnelly, D., MacGarr, O., & O’Reilly, J. (2011). A framework for teachers’ integration of ICT into their classroom practice. Computers & Education, 57(2), 1469-1483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.02.014
Ellis, R. A., Goodyear, P., Calvo, R. A., & Prosser, M. (2008). Engineering students’ conceptions of and approaches to learning through discussions in face-to-face and online contexts. Learning and Instruction, 18, 267-282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.06.001
Ely, D. (1991). Trends and issues in educational technology. In G.J. Anglin (Ed.), Instructional technology: Past, present, and future (pp. 34-58). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
Ertmer, P. (1999). Addressing first- and second-order barriers to change: Strategies for technology implementation. Educational Technology Research and Development, 47(4), 47–61.
Ertmer, P.A., Addison, P., Lane, M., Ross, E., & Woods, D. (1999). Examining teacher beliefs about the role of technology in the elementary classroom. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(1), 54-72.
European Commission. (2016). Connectivity for a competitive digital single market - towards a European gigabit. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/dae/document.cfm?doc_id=17182
Goktas, Y., Yildirim, S., & Yildirim, Z. (2009). Main barriers and possible enablers of ICT integration into preservice teacher education programs. Educational Technology & Society, 12(1), 193-204.
Göktaş, Y. (2006). The current status of information and communication technologies integratıon into schools of teacher education and K-12 in Turkey (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), METU, Ankara.
Gülbahar, Y. (2007). Technology planning: A roadmap to successful technology integration in schools. Computers & Education, 49, 943–956. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2005.12.002
Gulbahar, Y., & Guven, I. (2008). A Survey on ICT Usage and the Perceptions of Social Studies Teachers in Turkey. Educational Technology & Society, 11(3), 37-51.
Harrell, S., Bynum, Y. (2018). Factors affecting technology integration in the classroom. Alabama Journal of Educational Leadership, 5, 12-18.
Hung, Y. W., & Hsu, Y.-S. (2007). Examining teachers' CBT use in the classroom: A study in secondary schools in Taiwan. Educational Technology & Society, 10(3), 233-246.
Hsu, Y. S., Wu, H. K., & Hwang, F. K. (2007). Factors influencing junior high school teachers’ computer-based instructional practices regarding their instructional evolution stages. Educational Technology & Society, 10(4), 118-130.
Inan, F. A., Lowther, D. L., Ross, S., & Strahl, J. D. (2010). Pattern of classroom activities during students’ use of computers: Relations between instructional strategies and computer applications. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(3), 540-546. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2009.06.017
İBDÖP. (2006). İlköğretim bilgisayar dersi (1–8. siniflar) öğretim programı. Retrieved from https://docplayer.biz.tr/2069302-T-c-milli-egitim-bakanligi-talim-ve-terbiye-kurulu-baskanligi.html
Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2004). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches (2nd edition). Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.
Kafyulilo, A., Fisser, P., & Voogt, J. (2016). Factors affecting teachers’ continuation of technology use in teaching. Education and Information Technologies, 21(6), 1535–1554. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-015-9398-0
Karasavvidis, I. (2009). Activity theory as a conceptual framework for understanding teacher approaches to information and communication technologies. Computers & Education, 53(2009), 436–444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.03.003
Larson, B. E. (1999). Classroom discussion: A method of instruction and a curriculum outcome. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 661-667.
Meriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass Publishers.
Januszewski, A., & Molenda, M. (2008). Educational technology: A definition with commentary. New York: Routeledge.
Molenda, M., & Russell, J.D. (2005). Instruction as an Intervention. Retrieved July 28, 2011, from http://www.indiana.edu/~molpage/Instruction%20as%20 Interven.pdf
Molenda, M., & Robinson, R. (2004a). The definition of educational technology. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~molpage/Definition%20of ET_classS05.pdf
Molenda, M., & Robinson, R. (2004b). The meanings of educational technology. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~molpage/Meanings%20of ET_4.0.pdf.
MoNE. (2009). Orta öğretim kurumları bilgi ve iletişim teknolojisi dersi öğretim programı. Retrieved from http://talimterbiye.mebnet.net/Ogretim Programlari/ortaokul/2010-2011/Bilgive%C4%B0letisim-6-8(Yerel).pdf
Mubashrah, J., Shaziah, J., & Samina, B. (2016). Extrinsic and intrinsic barriers of integrating ICTs tools in teaching at undergraduate and elementary level: A comparative study. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 36(2), 1073-1087.
Mumtaz, S. (2000). Factors affecting teachers' use of information and communications technology: A review of the literature. Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education, 9(3), 319-342.
NCES, National Center for Education Statistics (2000a). Teacher use of computers and the Internet in public schools, Department of Education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/2000090.pdf
NCES, National Center for Education Statistics (2000b). Teachers’ tools for the 21st century, Department of Education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/2000102.pdf
NCES, National Center for Education Statistics (2009). Educational technology in public school districts: Fall 2008, Department of Education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010003.pdf
NCTAF, National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. (1996). What matters most: Teaching for America’s future. New York: Author. Retrieved from http://www.nctaf.org/documents/WhatMattersMost.pdf
Oncu, S., Delialioglu, O., & Brown, C. A. (2008). Critical components for technology integration: How do instructors make decisions? Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 27(1), 19-46.
OTA. (1995). Teachers and technology: Making the connection. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://www.coedu.usf.edu/itphdsem/eme7938/ota9541.pdf
Özden, M. Y. (2008). Bilişim teknolojileri 1-8 kazanımları. Retrieved from http://guide.ceit.metu.edu.tr/
Parker, W. C., & Hess, D. (2001). Teaching with and for discussion. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 273-289.
Papanastasiou, E. C., & Angeli, C. (2008). Evaluating the use of ICT in education: Psychometric properties of the survey of factors affecting teachers teaching with technology (SFA-T3). Educational Technology & Society, 11(1), 69-86.
Piciano, A. G. (1994). Computers in the schools. New York: Macmillian Publishing Co.
Seels, B. B, & Richey, R.C. (1994). Instructional technology: The definitions and domains of the field. Washington, DC: Association for Educational Communications and Technology.Shi, M., & Bichelmeyer, B. (2007). Teachers' experiences with computers: A comparative study. Educational Technology & Society, 10(2), 180-190.
Sivin-Kachala, J., & Bialo, E. (2000). 2000 research report on the effectiveness of technology in schools (7th ed.). Washington, DC: Software and Information Industry Association. Retrieved from http://www.sunysuffolk.edu/Web/Central/InstTech/projects/iteffrpt.pdf
Tickton, S. G., & Kohn, S. D. (1971). The new instructional technologies: Are they worth it? (AA00802). A report presented to the Presidents’ Commission on School Finance. Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development, Inc. (ED058498).
The European Union. (2001). E-Europe 2002 benchmarking, European youth into the digital age. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/eeurope/ 2002/news_library/documets/education_staff_paper/education_en.pdf
Top, E. (2007). Secondary school English teachers’ technology perceptions and issues related with their technology integration processes: A qualitatıve study. Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, METU, Ankara, Turkey.
Topp, N. W., Mortensen, R., & Grandgenett, N. (1995). Building a technology-using faculty to facilitate technology-using teachers. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 11(3), 11-14.
Uluyol, Ç., & Şahin, S. (2016). Elementary school teachers’ ICT use in the classroom and their motivators for using ICT. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(1), 65–75. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12220
Wallace, M., & Poulson, L. (2003) Learning to read critically in educational leadership and management. London: Sage.
Wilson, E. K., & Wright, V. H. (2007). Teacher use of technology: From the teacher education program to the classroom. Retrieved from http://www.jimruid.com/Wilson_Elizabeth_N07.pdf
Wong, S. L., & Hanafi, A. (2007). Gender differences in attitudes towards information technology among Malaysian student teachers: A case study at Universiti Putra Malaysia. Educational Technology & Society, 10(2), 158-169.
Yıldırım, S. (2000). Effects of an educational computing course on preservice and inservice teachers: A discussion and analysis of attitudes and use. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 32(4), 479-495.
Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2005). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin.
Young, S. S.-C., & Ku, H.-H. (2008). A study of uses of ICT in primary education through four winning school cases in the Taiwan schools Cyberfair. Educational Technology & Society, 11(3), 52-66.
Zamani, B. E. (2010). Successful implementation factors for using computers in Iranian schools during one decade (1995–2005). Computers & Education, 54(1), 59-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.07.004